Paternity Fact Sheet

Paternity Analysis Fact Sheet


In theory an individual inherits half their DNA from their mother and half from their father.

When assessing parentage the pup’s DNA profile (genotype) is compared with that of the Dam.  Any alleles (fragments of DNA) present in the pup that are not in the mother are concluded to have come from the Sire.

Ten canine specific microsatellite markers allows for an individual DNA profile unique to that individual.  Each marker generates two alleles (bands) of a particular size (base pairs).  When the alleles are the same size we call this individual homozygous ie. it has inherited two identical sized bands from each parent.  Where the two bands appear as different sizes we call this heterozygous that is it has inherited one specific sized allele from each parent.

Example of paternity analysis

Parentage is verified by comparing the profile of the dam, pup(s) and sire at all 10 markers.   In some cases letters are used as a representation of the real size data.  All Greyhound Association results are shown as real data (base pair numbers) as shown below.

A PUP has the alleles 

121      125    for canine marker FHC2054


223      223   for canine marker PEZ08


The DAM has the alleles

121     121   for canine marker FHC2054


223    227   for canine marker PEZ08

Therefore, by comparing the DNA profile of the PUP with the DAM we can conclude that the PUP has inherited allele 121 for marker FHC2054 and 223 for marker PEZ08 from the DAM. Allele 125 for FHC2054 and 223 for PEZ08 must be passed on paternally ie. from the SIRE.

SIRE 1 has the alleles 

121    125   for canine marker FHC2054


223     223   for canine marker PEZ08

INCLUSION there is a common allele between the pup and alleged sire indicates possible paternity. 

SIRE 2 has the alleles 

121     121   for canine marker FHC2054


227     231    for canine marker PEZ08

EXCLUSION there is no common allele between pup and the alleged sire.


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